Infection predominantly affects children but it can also be a cause of diarrhoea in the elderly living in long term residential care facilities as well as individuals with immunocompromised conditions. In Ireland it is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children under the age of 5 and is most prevalent during the Winter and Spring.
Rotavirus A RNA
Rotavirus A RNA
Rotavirus is an RNA virus of the Reoviridae family with several species identified with Rotavirus A being responsible for the majority of human infections.
Infection may be asymptomatic or characterised by vomiting and watery diarrhoea for 3-8 days. Other common symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and dehydration. The incubation period of Rotavirus disease is approximately 1-4 days. The primary mode of transmission is by the faecal-oral route by direct person to person contact or from contact with contaminated food, water or environment. Viral shedding can occur up to 3 days after symptoms resolve. Immunity is long lasting following infection.
Two rotavirus vaccines are currently available. For further information please refer to the HSE website.
Loose/liquid human faecal sample.
|Clostridium difficile toxin A/B||Astrovirus||Cyclospora cayetanensis|
|Plesiomonas shigelloides||Rotavirus A||Entamoeba histolytica|
|Salmonella||Novovirus GI/GII||Giardia lamblia|
|Vibrio||Sapovirus (Genogroups I, II, IV and V)|
In addition to the packaging of samples, the transport/delivery of clinical samples to the laboratory is required to be in adherence to all national regulations for the safe transport of biological materials. Enfer Medical provides a fully compliant logistics service, aligned with clients’ testing requirements.
Prompt transport of specimens:
To ensure prompt testing of samples and release of results within the published test turnaround times, samples should arrive to the laboratory by 18:00. Test turnaround time is measured from receipt of the sample at the laboratory until the time the authorised results are reported to users.
In rare cases specimens may not be suitable for testing on arrival to the laboratory. In that case the sample will be rejected at the receipt stage and the service user will be notified immediately and an explanation as to why the sample could not be processed will be provided. Reasons why samples cannot be processed include but are not limited to:
- Samples received beyond the stability limits and/or not at the correct temperature indicated for each test.
- Incorrect sample type received.
- Leaking samples, sample not received or sample insufficient for analysis as stated below within sample requirements.
- Non-compliant samples or request forms i.e. those missing sample date information, missing sample test request and/or missing sample site/type information.
- Samples received without the necessary patient identifiers.
- NOT DETECTED
Please refer to the Health Protection Surveillance Centre for the Case Definitions for Notifiable Diseases: