Early diagnosis is vital to ensure appropriate antifungal treatment is commenced without delay. Galactomannan, a cell wall component of Aspergillus, and 1-3 β-D-glucan detection are key diagnostic markers for the detection of invasive Aspergillosis.
Aspergillus Glactomannan Antigen
Aspergillus Glactomannan Antigen
Aspergillus species are fungi that are ubiquitous in the environment and may cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in a susceptible host. Invasive aspergillosis in an immunocompromised host and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality
Clinical manifestations range from non-invasive allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, and aspergilloma, to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis, and occasionally extra pulmonary manifestations involving organs like the liver, kidney, GI tract, eyes, brain and skin. Invasive and extrapulmonary manifestations are particularly seen in immunocompromised hosts such as those with underlying haematological malignancies, transplant recipients, or those receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapies. Pulmonary aspergillosis has been associated with some risk groups of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Building works in the healthcare setting poses the risk of nosocomial aspergillosis in vulnerable patient populations, especially where appropriate infection prevention and control measures have not been adequately implemented.
Aspergillus infections usually start in the lung following inhalation of environmental Aspergillus spores. Presenting symptoms of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis include fever, chest pain, and haemoptysis.
Galactomannan, a cell wall component of Aspergillus is a key diagnostic marker for the detection of invasive aspergillosis. Evidence of infection is usually supported by clinical history, radiological findings, diagnostic markers including galactomannan and serum β-d glucan, histology, and pathogen identification by culture or PCR.
As invasive aspergillosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality early diagnosis and treatment is key.
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5ml venous serum or Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)
Immunoenzymatic sandwich microplate assay for the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in adult and pediatric serum samples and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples.
It is intended to be used as an aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis when used in conjunction with other diagnostic markers.
Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis:
For clients using the Enfer Medical Client Portal, the Enfer Medical Patient Request Form (PRF) will be generated when you have completed your “Test Request” within the portal linked below.
Please note that samples suspected of containing high risk pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be clearly identified on the form and packed separately from other samples.
Results are available within 24 – 48 Hours
This assay is available five days a week (Monday-Friday)
The packaging/preparation of samples for delivery to the laboratory are required to be in adherence to all national regulations for the safe transport of biological materials. HSE guidance can be reviewed HERE.
There are specific packaging instructions and labelling requirements requiring triple packaging including:
- Primary leak-proof container – tube or vial containing the sample.
- Secondary watertight container, with absorbent material, intended to protect the primary container.
- Outer container protects the secondary container.
- Patient Request forms must be placed between the secondary container and the outer shipping container.
Further information on the packaging/preparation of samples for delivery to the laboratory is contained within the Enfer Medical Laboratory User Manual which clients are provided with.
Storage & Stability
Unopened venous serum specimens can be stored at 2-8°C for up to 5 days prior to testing. After initial opening specimens may be stored at 2-8°C for 48 hours prior to testing.
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens may be stored at 2-8°C for up to 24 hours.
In addition to the packaging of samples, the transport/delivery of clinical samples to the laboratory is required to be in adherence to all national regulations for the safe transport of biological materials. Enfer Medical provides a fully compliant logistics service, aligned with clients’ testing requirements.
Prompt transport of specimens:
To ensure prompt testing of samples and release of results within the published test turnaround times, samples should arrive to the laboratory by 18:00. Test turnaround time is measured from receipt of the sample at the laboratory until the time the authorised results are reported to users.
In rare cases specimens may not be suitable for testing on arrival to the laboratory. In that case the sample will be rejected at the receipt stage and the service user will be notified immediately and an explanation as to why the sample could not be processed will be provided. Reasons why samples cannot be processed include but are not limited to:
- Samples received beyond the stability limits and/or not at the correct temperature indicated for each test.
- Incorrect sample type received.
- Leaking samples, sample not received or sample insufficient for analysis as stated below within sample requirements.
- Non-compliant samples or request forms i.e. those missing sample date information, missing sample test request and/or missing sample site/type information.
- Samples received without the necessary patient identifiers.
- NOT DETECTED
Laboratory results will be reported between within 24-48 hours from the time of receipt at the laboratory and will be reported to the referring clinician in an agreed format.
Established clients can login to the portal using the link above.