There are five genogroups of Norovirus, with GI and GII being most frequently associated with human infection. Norovirus is highly contagious and a major cause of acute gastroenteritis. It is one of the most common causes of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Outbreaks are common particularly in health and residential care facilities and it is widely known for causing outbreaks on cruise ships. Immunity following infection is short-lived and reinfection is possible within 6 months.
Norovirus GI/GII RNA
Norovirus GI/GII RNA
Norovirus is an RNA virus and is commonly referred to as the winter vomiting bug although infection may occur at any time of year.
Norovirus can cause moderate to severe gastroenteritis and may present with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea abdominal pain, fever, myalgia and headaches. Infection may also be asymptomatic. Transmission occurs through faecal-oral spread, from direct contact with a case, contaminated surfaces, ingesting contaminated food or from airborne droplets of vomitus for an infected individual. Norovirus can have a gradual or sudden onset. It typically develops within 24-48 hours after exposure . The illness is generally short-lived, lasting approximately 24-72 hours, it is highly contagious due to its ability to survive in the environment. Infected individuals can continue to shed the virus for up to 2-4 weeks after recovery.
Loose/liquid human faecal sample.
|Clostridium difficile toxin A/B||Astrovirus||Cyclospora cayetanensis|
|Plesiomonas shigelloides||Rotavirus A||Entamoeba histolytica|
|Salmonella||Novovirus GI/GII||Giardia lamblia|
|Vibrio||Sapovirus (Genogroups I, II, IV and V)|
In addition to the packaging of samples, the transport/delivery of clinical samples to the laboratory is required to be in adherence to all national regulations for the safe transport of biological materials. Enfer Medical provides a fully compliant logistics service, aligned with clients’ testing requirements.
Prompt transport of specimens:
To ensure prompt testing of samples and release of results within the published test turnaround times, samples should arrive to the laboratory by 18:00. Test turnaround time is measured from receipt of the sample at the laboratory until the time the authorised results are reported to users.
In rare cases specimens may not be suitable for testing on arrival to the laboratory. In that case the sample will be rejected at the receipt stage and the service user will be notified immediately and an explanation as to why the sample could not be processed will be provided. Reasons why samples cannot be processed include but are not limited to:
- Samples received beyond the stability limits and/or not at the correct temperature indicated for each test.
- Incorrect sample type received.
- Leaking samples, sample not received or sample insufficient for analysis as stated below within sample requirements.
- Non-compliant samples or request forms i.e. those missing sample date information, missing sample test request and/or missing sample site/type information.
- Samples received without the necessary patient identifiers.
- NOT DETECTED
Please refer to the Health Protection Surveillance Centre for the Case Definitions for Notifiable Diseases: