It has major physiological significance, is present in all body fluids and is primarily involved in osmotic pressure, hydration, electrolyte balance and acid base homeostasis. The concentration of serum chloride is regulated by the kidneys. An average dietary intake of table salt, sodium chloride, easily supplies enough chloride for physiological needs.
Chloride is an essential electrolyte and is the major anion in extracellular fluid, accounting for around one third of extracellular fluid tonicity.
Hyperchloraemia can occur with excessive loss of bicarbonate due to gastrointestinal loss with prolonged vomiting or diarrhoea, sweating or dehydration. It can also occur with renal tubular acidosis, mineralocorticoid deficiency, compensated respiratory alkalosis from hyperventilation, diabetic ketoacidosis and methanol poisoning or salicylate toxicity. Hyperchloremia frequently coincides with hypernatraemia.
Hypochloraemia most commonly results from loss of body fluids from prolonged vomiting or chronic diarrhoea and in congestive heart failure. Low serum chloride levels are also seen in conditions associated with high serum bicarbonate concentrations such as chronic lung disease causing respiratory acidosis; or metabolic alkalosis. Low chloride occurs in Addisons disease.
5mL venous serum or plasma
In addition to the packaging of samples, the transport/delivery of clinical samples to the laboratory is required to be in adherence to all national regulations for the safe transport of biological materials. Enfer Medical provides a fully compliant logistics service, aligned with clients’ testing requirements.
Prompt transport of specimens:
To ensure prompt testing of samples and release of results within the published test turnaround times, samples should arrive to the laboratory by 18:00. Test turnaround time is measured from receipt of the sample at the laboratory until the time the authorised results are reported to users.
In rare cases specimens may not be suitable for testing on arrival to the laboratory. In that case the sample will be rejected at the receipt stage and the service user will be notified immediately and an explanation as to why the sample could not be processed will be provided. Reasons why samples cannot be processed include but are not limited to:
- Samples received beyond the stability limits and/or not at the correct temperature indicated for each test.
- Incorrect sample type received.
- Leaking samples, sample not received or sample insufficient for analysis as stated below within sample requirements.
- Non-compliant samples or request forms i.e. those missing sample date information, missing sample test request and/or missing sample site/type information.
- Samples received without the necessary patient identifiers.
Quantitative results for Chloride are reported in numeric value in mmol/L. Please contact us for more information on the reference ranges used at Enfer Medical.
Critical results are communicated in accordance with the Communication of critical results for patients in the community- national laboratory handbook CSP041/2019